What is a Loan? Types of Loans - KingsTemplate.Com

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Loan

In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e., the borrower) incurs a debt and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid as well as to repay the principal amount borrowed.

The document evidencing the debt (e.g., a promissory note) will normally specify, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and the date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset (s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower.

The interest provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants. Although this article focuses on monetary loans, in practice, any material object might be lent.

Acting as a provider of loans is one of the main activities of financial institutions such as banks and credit card companies. For other institutions, issuing of debt contracts such as bonds is a typical source of funding.


Unsecured: -
Unsecured loans are monetary loans that are not secured against the borrower's assets. These may be available from financial institutions under many different guises or marketing packages:

Credit cards
Personal loans
Bank overdrafts
Credit facilities or lines of credit
Corporate bonds (may be secured or unsecured)
Peer-to-peer lending


The interest rates applicable to these different forms may vary depending on the lender and the borrower. These may or may not be regulated by law. In the United Kingdom, when applied to individuals, these may come under the Consumer Credit Act 1974.

Interest rates on unsecured loans are almost always higher than for secured loans because an unsecured lender's options for recourse against the borrower in the event of default are severely limited, subjecting the lender to higher risk than to that encountered for a secured loan. An unsecured lender must sue the borrower, obtain a money judgment for breach of contract, and then pursue execution of the judgment against the borrower's unencumbered assets (that is, the ones not already pledged to secured lenders). In insolvency proceedings, secured lenders traditionally have priority over unsecured lenders when a court divides up the borrower's assets. Thus, a higher interest rate implies the additional risk that in the event of insolvency, the debt may be uncollectible


United States taxes: -
Most of the basic rules governing how loans are handled for tax purposes in the United States are codified by both Congress (the Internal Revenue Code) and the Treasury Department (Treasury Regulations - another set of rules that interpret the Internal Revenue Code).

1. A loan is not gross income to the borrower.Since the borrower has the obligation to repay the loan, the borrower has no accession to wealth.

2. The lender may not deduct (from own gross income) the amount of the loan. The rationale here is that one asset (the cash) has been converted into a different asset (a promise of repayment). Deductions are not typically available when an outlay serves to create a new or different asset.

3. The amount paid to satisfy the loan obligation is not deductible (from own gross income) by the borrower.

4. Repayment of the loan is not gross income to the lender. In effect, the promise of repayment is converted back to cash, with no accession to wealth by the lender.

5. Interest paid to the lender is included in the lender's gross income. Interest paid represents compensation for the use of the lender's money or property and thus represents profit or an accession to wealth to the lender. Interest income can be attributed to lenders even if the lender does not charge a minimum amount of interest.

6. Interest paid to the lender may be deductible by the borrower. In general, interest paid in connection with the borrower's business activity is deductible, while interest paid on personal loans are not deductible. The major exception here is interest paid on a home mortgage .

Income from discharge of indebtedness: -

Although a loan does not start out as income to the borrower, it becomes income to the borrower if the borrower is discharged of indebtedness. Thus, if a debt is discharged, then the borrower essentially has received income equal to the amount of the indebtedness. The Internal Revenue Code lists "Income from Discharge of Indebtedness" in Section 61 (a) (12) as a source of gross income.

Example: X owes Y $ 50,000. If Y discharges the indebtedness, then X no longer owes Y $ 50,000. For purposes of calculating income, this is treated the same way as if Y gave X $ 50,000.

For a more detailed description of the "discharge of indebtedness", look at Section 108 (Cancellation of Debt (COD) Income) of the Internal Revenue Code.



Types of Loans: -
Personal loans - You can get these loans at almost any bank. The good news is that you can usually spend the money however you like. You might go on vacation, buy a jet ski or get a new television. Personal loans are often unsecured and fairly easy to get if you have average credit history. The downside is that they are usually for small amounts, typically not going over $ 5,000, and the interest rates are higher than secured loans.

Home- equity loans and lines of credit - Homeowners can borrow against equity they have in their house with these types of loans. The equity or loan amount would be the difference between the appraised value of your home and the amount you still owe on your mortgage. These loans are good for home additions, home improvements or debt consolidation. The interest rate is often tax deductible and also fairly low compared to other loans.

Cash advances - If you are in a pinch and need money quickly, cash advances from your credit card company or other payday loan institutions are an option. These loans are easy to get, but can have extremely high interest rates. They usually are only for small amounts: typically $ 1,000 or less. These loans should really only be considered when there are no other alternative ways to get money.

Student loans - These are great ways to help finance a college education. The most common loans are Stafford loans and Perkins loans. The interest rates are very reasonable, and you usually don't have to pay the loans back while you are a full-time college student. The downside is that these loans can add up to well over $ 100,000 in the course of four, six or eight years, leaving new graduates with huge debts as they embark on their new careers.

Mortgage loans - This is most likely the biggest loan you will ever get! If you are looking to purchase your first home or some form of real estate, this is likely the best option. These loans are secured by the house or property you are buying. That means if you don't make your payments in a timely manner, the bank or lender can take your house or property back! Mortgages help people get into homes that would otherwise take years to save for. They are often structured in 10-, 15- or 30-year terms, and the interest you pay is tax-deductible and fairly low compared to other loans.

Small business loans - Your local banks usually offer these loans to people looking to start a business. They do require a little more work than normal and often require a business plan to show the validity of what you are doing. These are often secured loans, so you will have to pledge some personal assets as collateral in case the business fails.

Cash advances - If you are in a pinch and need money quickly, cash advances from your credit card company or other payday loan institutions are an option. These loans are easy to get, but can have extremely high interest rates. They usually are only for small amounts: typically $ 1,000 or less. These loans should really only be considered when there are no other alternative ways to get money.

Student loans - These are great ways to help finance a college education. The most common loans are Stafford loans and Perkins loans. The interest rates are very reasonable, and you usually don't have to pay the loans back while you are a full-time college student. The downside is that these loans can add up to well over $ 100,000 in the course of four, six or eight years, leaving new graduates with huge debts as they embark on their new careers.

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What is a Loan? Types of Loans


Loan

In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e., the borrower) incurs a debt and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid as well as to repay the principal amount borrowed.

The document evidencing the debt (e.g., a promissory note) will normally specify, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and the date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset (s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower.

The interest provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants. Although this article focuses on monetary loans, in practice, any material object might be lent.

Acting as a provider of loans is one of the main activities of financial institutions such as banks and credit card companies. For other institutions, issuing of debt contracts such as bonds is a typical source of funding.


Unsecured: -
Unsecured loans are monetary loans that are not secured against the borrower's assets. These may be available from financial institutions under many different guises or marketing packages:

Credit cards
Personal loans
Bank overdrafts
Credit facilities or lines of credit
Corporate bonds (may be secured or unsecured)
Peer-to-peer lending


The interest rates applicable to these different forms may vary depending on the lender and the borrower. These may or may not be regulated by law. In the United Kingdom, when applied to individuals, these may come under the Consumer Credit Act 1974.

Interest rates on unsecured loans are almost always higher than for secured loans because an unsecured lender's options for recourse against the borrower in the event of default are severely limited, subjecting the lender to higher risk than to that encountered for a secured loan. An unsecured lender must sue the borrower, obtain a money judgment for breach of contract, and then pursue execution of the judgment against the borrower's unencumbered assets (that is, the ones not already pledged to secured lenders). In insolvency proceedings, secured lenders traditionally have priority over unsecured lenders when a court divides up the borrower's assets. Thus, a higher interest rate implies the additional risk that in the event of insolvency, the debt may be uncollectible


United States taxes: -
Most of the basic rules governing how loans are handled for tax purposes in the United States are codified by both Congress (the Internal Revenue Code) and the Treasury Department (Treasury Regulations - another set of rules that interpret the Internal Revenue Code).

1. A loan is not gross income to the borrower.Since the borrower has the obligation to repay the loan, the borrower has no accession to wealth.

2. The lender may not deduct (from own gross income) the amount of the loan. The rationale here is that one asset (the cash) has been converted into a different asset (a promise of repayment). Deductions are not typically available when an outlay serves to create a new or different asset.

3. The amount paid to satisfy the loan obligation is not deductible (from own gross income) by the borrower.

4. Repayment of the loan is not gross income to the lender. In effect, the promise of repayment is converted back to cash, with no accession to wealth by the lender.

5. Interest paid to the lender is included in the lender's gross income. Interest paid represents compensation for the use of the lender's money or property and thus represents profit or an accession to wealth to the lender. Interest income can be attributed to lenders even if the lender does not charge a minimum amount of interest.

6. Interest paid to the lender may be deductible by the borrower. In general, interest paid in connection with the borrower's business activity is deductible, while interest paid on personal loans are not deductible. The major exception here is interest paid on a home mortgage .

Income from discharge of indebtedness: -

Although a loan does not start out as income to the borrower, it becomes income to the borrower if the borrower is discharged of indebtedness. Thus, if a debt is discharged, then the borrower essentially has received income equal to the amount of the indebtedness. The Internal Revenue Code lists "Income from Discharge of Indebtedness" in Section 61 (a) (12) as a source of gross income.

Example: X owes Y $ 50,000. If Y discharges the indebtedness, then X no longer owes Y $ 50,000. For purposes of calculating income, this is treated the same way as if Y gave X $ 50,000.

For a more detailed description of the "discharge of indebtedness", look at Section 108 (Cancellation of Debt (COD) Income) of the Internal Revenue Code.



Types of Loans: -
Personal loans - You can get these loans at almost any bank. The good news is that you can usually spend the money however you like. You might go on vacation, buy a jet ski or get a new television. Personal loans are often unsecured and fairly easy to get if you have average credit history. The downside is that they are usually for small amounts, typically not going over $ 5,000, and the interest rates are higher than secured loans.

Home- equity loans and lines of credit - Homeowners can borrow against equity they have in their house with these types of loans. The equity or loan amount would be the difference between the appraised value of your home and the amount you still owe on your mortgage. These loans are good for home additions, home improvements or debt consolidation. The interest rate is often tax deductible and also fairly low compared to other loans.

Cash advances - If you are in a pinch and need money quickly, cash advances from your credit card company or other payday loan institutions are an option. These loans are easy to get, but can have extremely high interest rates. They usually are only for small amounts: typically $ 1,000 or less. These loans should really only be considered when there are no other alternative ways to get money.

Student loans - These are great ways to help finance a college education. The most common loans are Stafford loans and Perkins loans. The interest rates are very reasonable, and you usually don't have to pay the loans back while you are a full-time college student. The downside is that these loans can add up to well over $ 100,000 in the course of four, six or eight years, leaving new graduates with huge debts as they embark on their new careers.

Mortgage loans - This is most likely the biggest loan you will ever get! If you are looking to purchase your first home or some form of real estate, this is likely the best option. These loans are secured by the house or property you are buying. That means if you don't make your payments in a timely manner, the bank or lender can take your house or property back! Mortgages help people get into homes that would otherwise take years to save for. They are often structured in 10-, 15- or 30-year terms, and the interest you pay is tax-deductible and fairly low compared to other loans.

Small business loans - Your local banks usually offer these loans to people looking to start a business. They do require a little more work than normal and often require a business plan to show the validity of what you are doing. These are often secured loans, so you will have to pledge some personal assets as collateral in case the business fails.

Cash advances - If you are in a pinch and need money quickly, cash advances from your credit card company or other payday loan institutions are an option. These loans are easy to get, but can have extremely high interest rates. They usually are only for small amounts: typically $ 1,000 or less. These loans should really only be considered when there are no other alternative ways to get money.

Student loans - These are great ways to help finance a college education. The most common loans are Stafford loans and Perkins loans. The interest rates are very reasonable, and you usually don't have to pay the loans back while you are a full-time college student. The downside is that these loans can add up to well over $ 100,000 in the course of four, six or eight years, leaving new graduates with huge debts as they embark on their new careers.

Tag:-
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